Hong Kong (香港 “Fragrant Harbour”), officially Hong Kong Unique Administrative Location of the People’s Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the southern coast of China at the Pearl River Estuary and the South China Sea. Hong Kong is identified for its skyline and deep pure harbour. It has an space of 1104 km2 and shares its northern border with the Guangdong Province of Mainland China. With all around seven.2 million Hongkongers of various nationalities, Hong Kong is a person of the world’s most densely populated metropolises.
Immediately after the 1st Opium War (1839–42), Hong Kong became a British colony with the perpetual cession of Hong Kong Island, adopted by Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and a ninety nine-12 months lease of the New Territories from 1898. Hong Kong remained beneath British control for about a century right up until the Next Earth War, when Japan occupied the colony from December 1941 to August 1945. Immediately after the Surrender of Japan, the British resumed control. In the nineteen eighties, negotiations among the United Kingdom and the People’s Republic of China resulted in the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, which supplied for the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong on thirty June 1997. The territory became a specific administrative region of China with a significant degree of autonomy on 1 July 1997 beneath the principle of a person place, two devices. Disputes above the perceived misapplication of this principle have contributed to well known protests, including the 2014 Umbrella Revolution.
In the late seventies, Hong Kong became a important entrepôt in Asia-Pacific. The territory has developed into a important worldwide trade hub and monetary centre. The 44th-biggest economy in the environment, Hong Kong ranks prime ten in GDP (PPP) per capita, but also has the most intense cash flow inequality between superior economies. Hong Kong is a person of the 3 most significant monetary centres together with New York and London, and the world’s selection a person tourist place town. The territory has been named the freest marketplace economy. The service economy, characterised by free of charge trade and low taxation, has been regarded as a person of the world’s most laissez-faire economic guidelines, and the currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the thirteenth most traded currency in the environment.
The Hong Kong Simple Law empowers the region to create relations and make agreements right with foreign states and areas, as nicely as global companies, in a wide variety of suitable fields. It is an impartial member of APEC, the IMF, WTO, FIFA and Global Olympic Committee between other people.
Limited land developed a dense infrastructure and the territory became a centre of modern-day architecture, and a person of the world’s most vertical metropolitan areas. Hong Kong has a remarkably developed general public transportation community covering 90 per cent of the population, the best in the environment, and depends on mass transit by road or rail. Air air pollution stays a critical trouble. Loose emissions benchmarks have resulted in a significant degree of atmospheric particulates. Nevertheless, Hongkongers enjoy the world’s longest or second longest life expectancies.
It is not identified who was liable for the Romanisation of the identify “Hong Kong” but it is normally believed to be an early imprecise phonetic rendering of the pronunciation of the spoken Cantonese or Hakka identify 香港, that means “Fragrant Harbour”. Just before 1842, the identify referred to a modest inlet—now Aberdeen Harbour (香港仔, Sidney Lau: heung1gong2 jai2, Jyutping: hoeng1gong2 zai2, or Hiong1gong3 zai3 in a kind of Hakka, pretty much implies “Minor Hong Kong”)—between Aberdeen Island and the south aspect of Hong Kong Island, which was a person of the initial points of call among British sailors and neighborhood fishermen. As those people early contacts are possible to have been with Hong Kong’s early inhabitants, the Tankas (水上人), it is similarly probable that the early Romanisation was a faithful execution of their speech, i.e. hong1, not heung1. Detailed and correct Romanisation devices for Cantonese had been out there and in use at the time.
The reference to fragrance could refer to the sweet taste of the harbour’s clean drinking water estuarine inflow of the Pearl River, or to the incense from factories, lining the coast to the north of Kowloon, which was saved close to Aberdeen Harbour for export right before the improvement of the Victoria Harbour.
In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking was signed and the identify, Hong Kong, was initial recorded on formal paperwork to encompass the entirety of the island.
The identify had typically been prepared as the single term Hongkong right up until the governing administration adopted the present-day kind in 1926. Nevertheless, a selection of century-aged institutions nevertheless retain the single-term kind, these types of as the Hongkong Submit, Hongkong Electric and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Company.
The full formal identify, following 1997, is “Hong Kong Unique Administrative Location of the People’s Republic of China”. This is the formal title as outlined in the Hong Kong Simple Law and the Hong Kong Government’s internet site even so, “Hong Kong Unique Administrative Location” and “Hong Kong” are broadly accepted.
Hong Kong has carried numerous nicknames: the most well-known between those people is the “Pearl of the Orient”, which reflected the amazing evening-see of the city’s light-weight decorations on the skyscrapers alongside equally sides of the Victoria Harbour. The territory is also identified as “Asia’s Earth Town”.
Archaeological scientific tests help human presence in the Chek Lap Kok space (now Hong Kong Global Airport) from 35,000 to 39,000 years back and on Sai Kung Peninsula from six,000 years back.
Wong Tei Tung and Three Fathoms Cove are the earliest internet sites of human habitation in Hong Kong during the Paleolithic Period of time. It is believed that the Three Fathom Cove was a river-valley settlement and Wong Tei Tung was a lithic producing web site. Excavated Neolithic artefacts recommended cultural differences from the Longshan lifestyle of northern China and settlement by the Che persons, prior to the migration of the Baiyue (Viets) to Hong Kong. 8 petroglyphs, which dated to the Shang dynasty in China, had been learned on the surrounding islands.
In 214 BC, Qin Shi Huang, the initial emperor of China, conquered the Baiyue tribes in Jiaozhi (modern-day Liangguang region and Vietnam) and incorporated the territory into imperial China for the initial time. Modern-day Hong Kong was assigned to the Nanhai commandery (modern-day Nanhai District), close to the commandery’s funds town Panyu. In Qin dynasty, the territory was dominated by Panyu County(番禺縣) up till Jin Dynasty.
The space of Hong Kong was consolidated beneath the kingdom of Nanyue (Southern Viet), launched by general Zhao Tuo in 204 BC following the collapse of the quick-lived Qin dynasty. When the kingdom of Nanyue was conquered by the Han Dynasty in 111 BC, Hong Kong was assigned to the Jiaozhi commandery. Archaeological evidence implies that the population improved and early salt production flourished in this time time period. Lei Cheng British isles Han Tomb on the Kowloon Peninsula is believed to have been built during the Han dynasty.
Started out from Jin dynasty to early time period of Tang dynasty, the territory that now comprises Hong Kong was ruled by Bao’an County (寶安縣). In Tang dynasty, the Guangdong region flourished as an global investing heart. The Tuen Mun region in what is now Hong Kong’s New Territories served as a port, naval base, salt production centre and afterwards, base for the exploitation of pearls. Lantau Island was also a salt production centre, where the salt smugglers riots broke out towards the governing administration.
Less than the Tang dynasty, the Guangdong (Canton) region flourished as a regional investing centre. In 736 Ad, the initial Emperor of Tang founded a navy stronghold in Tuen Mun in western Hong Kong to protect the coastal space of the region. The initial village university, Li Ying College, was founded all around 1075 Ad in the modern-day-day New Territories beneath the Northern Song dynasty. Immediately after their defeat by the Mongols, the Southern Song court briefly moved to modern-day-day Kowloon Town (the Sung Wong Toi web site), right before its final defeat at the Struggle of Yamen.
From the mid-Tang dynasty to early Ming dynasty, the territory that now comprises Hong Kong was ruled by Dongguan County (東莞縣/ 東官縣). In Ming dynasty, the space was ruled by Xin’an County (新安縣) right before it was colonized by the British governing administration. The indigenous inhabitants of what is now Hong Kong are determined with many ethnicities, including Punti, Hakka, Tanka) and Hoklo.
The earliest European customer on report was Jorge Álvares, a Portuguese explorer who arrived in 1513. Acquiring launched an institution in Macau by 1557, Portuguese merchants started investing in southern China. Nonetheless, subsequent navy clashes among China and Portugal led to the expulsion of all Portuguese merchants from the relaxation of China.
In the mid-16th century, the Haijin get (closed-doorway, isolation plan) was enforced and it strictly forbade all maritime functions in get to reduce call from foreigners by sea. From 1661 to 1669, Hong Kong was right afflicted by the Good Clearance of the Kangxi Emperor, who needed the evacuation of coastal spots of Guangdong. About sixteen,000 persons from Hong Kong and Bao’an County had been forced to emigrate inland 1,648 of those people who evacuated had been said to have returned following the evacuation was rescinded in 1669.
BRITSH CROWN COLONY 1842–1941
In 1839, the refusal of Qing authorities to help opium imports induced the outbreak of the 1st Opium War among the British Empire and the Qing Empire. Qing’s defeat resulted in the occupation of Hong Kong Island by British forces on 20 January 1841. It was originally ceded beneath the Conference of Chuenpee, as component of a ceasefire arrangement among Captain Charles Elliot and Governor Qishan. While a dispute among significant-position officers of equally nations around the world led to the failure of the treaty’s ratification, on 29 August 1842, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded in perpetuity to the United Kingdom of Good Britain and Eire beneath the Treaty of Nanking. The British officially founded a Crown colony and launched the Town of Victoria in the subsequent 12 months.
The population of Hong Kong Island was seven,450 when the Union Flag elevated above Possession Issue on 26 January 1841. It mainly consisted of Tanka fishermen and Hakka charcoal burners, whose settlements scattered alongside many coastal hamlets. In the 1850s, a huge selection of Chinese immigrants crossed the then-free of charge border to escape from the Taiping Rebellion. Other pure disasters, these types of as flooding, typhoons and famine in mainland China would perform a purpose in establishing Hong Kong as a location for safe and sound shelter.
Even further conflicts above the opium trade among Britain and Qing swiftly escalated into the Next Opium War. Following the Anglo-French victory, the Crown Colony was expanded to contain Kowloon Peninsula (south of Boundary Avenue) and Stonecutter’s Island, equally of which had been ceded to the British in perpetuity beneath the Conference of Beijing in 1860.
In 1898, Britain acquired a ninety nine-12 months lease from Qing beneath the Conference for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory, in which Hong Kong acquired a ninety nine-12 months lease of the Lantau Island, the space north of Boundary Avenue in Kowloon up to Shenzhen River and above 200 other outlying islands.
Hong Kong soon became a important entrepôt many thanks to its free of charge port standing, attracting new immigrants to settle from equally China and Europe alike. The culture, even so, remained racially segregated and polarised beneath British colonial guidelines. Even with the rise of a British-educated Chinese upper-class by the late-19th century, race laws these types of as the Peak Reservation Ordinance prevented ethnic Chinese in Hong Kong from obtaining homes in reserved spots, these types of as the Victoria Peak. At this time, the the greater part of the Chinese population in Hong Kong had no political representation in the British colonial governing administration. There had been, even so, a modest selection of Chinese elites whom the British governors relied on, these types of as Sir Kai Ho and Robert Hotung, who served as communicators and mediators among the governing administration and neighborhood population.
Hong Kong ongoing to working experience modest development during the initial half of the twentieth century. The College of Hong Kong was founded in 1911 as the territory’s oldest bigger training institute. While there was an exodus of 60,000 inhabitants for fear of a German assault on the British colony during the 1st Earth War, Hong Kong remained peaceful. Its population improved from 530,000 in 1916 to 725,000 in 1925 and reached 1.six million by 1941.
In 1925, Cecil Clementi became the 17th Governor of Hong Kong. Fluent in Cantonese and with no a need for translator, Clementi launched the initial ethnic Chinese, Shouson Chow, into the Govt Council as an unofficial member. Less than his tenure, Kai Tak Airport entered procedure as RAF Kai Tak and many aviation clubs. In 1937, the Next Sino-Japanese War broke out when the Japanese Empire expanded its territories from northeastern China into the mainland suitable. To safeguard Hong Kong as a freeport, Governor Geoffry Northcote declared the Crown Colony as a neutral zone.
JAPANESE Occupation 1941–45
As component of its navy campaign in Southeast Asia during Next Earth War, the Japanese army moved south from Guangzhou of mainland China and attacked Hong Kong on eight December 1941. The Struggle of Hong Kong ended with the British and Canadian defenders surrendering control of Hong Kong to Japan on 25 December 1941 in what was regarded by locals as Black Xmas.
During the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, the Japanese army dedicated atrocities towards civilians and POWs, these types of as the St. Stephen’s College massacre. Regional inhabitants also endured common meals shortages, constrained rationing and hyper-inflation arising from the forced exchange of currency from Hong Kong Dollars to Japanese navy banknotes. The initial ratio of 2:1 was progressively devalued to four:1 and possession of Hong Kong Dollars was declared illegal and punishable by severe torture. Thanks to hunger and forced deportation for slave labour to mainland China, the population of Hong Kong had dwindled from 1.six million in 1941 to 600,000 in 1945, when Britain resumed control of the colony on thirty August 1945.
As a person of the world’s primary global monetary centres, Hong Kong has a important capitalist service economy characterised by low taxation and free of charge trade. The currency, Hong Kong dollar, is the eighth most traded currency in the environment as of 2010. Hong Kong was the moment explained by Milton Friedman as the world’s best experiment in laissez-faire capitalism, but has considering the fact that instituted a regime of polices including a minimum amount wage. It maintains a remarkably developed capitalist economy, rated the freest in the environment by the Index of Financial Liberty each individual 12 months considering the fact that 1995. It is an significant centre for global finance and trade, with a person of the best concentrations of company headquarters in the Asia-Pacific region, and is identified as a person of the 4 Asian Tigers for its significant development rates and quick improvement from the sixties to the 1990s. Amongst 1961 and 1997 Hong Kong’s gross domestic product grew 180 times while per-capita GDP improved 87 times above.
The Hong Kong Stock Exchange is the seventh biggest in the environment and has a marketplace capitalisation of US$2.three trillion as of December 2009. In that 12 months, Hong Kong elevated 22 p.c of around the world initial general public supplying (IPO) funds, building it the biggest centre of IPOs in the environment and the simplest location to elevate funds. The Hong Kong dollar has been pegged to the US dollar considering the fact that 1983.
The Hong Kong Federal government has traditionally played a mainly passive purpose in the economy, with tiny by way of industrial plan and almost no import or export controls. Market place forces and the non-public sector had been allowed to identify useful improvement. Less than the formal plan of “favourable non-interventionism”, Hong Kong is typically cited as an illustration of laissez-faire capitalism. Following the Next Earth War, Hong Kong industrialised rapidly as a producing centre driven by exports, and then underwent a quick transition to a service-based economy in the nineteen eighties. Since then, it has developed to turn out to be a primary centre for management, monetary, IT, business enterprise consultation and professional services.
Hong Kong matured to turn out to be a monetary centre in the 1990s, but was considerably afflicted by the Asian monetary disaster in 1998, and again in 2003 by the SARS outbreak. A revival of external and domestic demand from customers has led to a strong recovery, as price tag decreases strengthened the competitiveness of Hong Kong exports and a long deflationary time period ended. Federal government intervention, initiated by the afterwards colonial governments and ongoing considering the fact that 1997, has steadily improved, with the introduction of export credit rating guarantees, a obligatory pension plan, a minimum amount wage, anti-discrimination laws, and a point out property finance loan backer.
The territory has tiny arable land and couple pure methods, so it imports most of its meals and uncooked materials. Imports account for extra than 90% of Hong Kong’s meals provide, including practically all of the meat and rice out there there. Agricultural activity – reasonably unimportant to Hong Kong’s economy and contributing just .1% of its GDP – principally is composed of expanding premium meals and flower kinds. Hong Kong is the world’s eleventh biggest investing entity, with the overall benefit of imports and exports exceeding its gross domestic product. It is the world’s biggest re-export centre. A great deal of Hong Kong’s exports consist of re-exports, which are goods created outside of the territory, especially in mainland China, and dispersed via Hong Kong. Its physical area has allowed the town to build a transportation and logistics infrastructure that features the world’s second busiest container port and the world’s busiest airport for global cargo. Even right before the transfer of sovereignty, Hong Kong had founded considerable trade and investment decision ties with the mainland, which now permit it to serve as a position of entry for investment decision flowing into the mainland. At the close of 2007, there had been three.forty six million persons used full-time, with the unemployment level averaging four.1% for the fourth straight 12 months of decline. Hong Kong’s economy is dominated by the service sector, which accounts for above 90% of its GDP, while industry constitutes 9%. Inflation was at 2.5% in 2007. Hong Kong’s biggest export marketplaces are mainland China, the United States, and Japan.
As of 2010 Hong Kong is the eighth most high priced town for expatriates, slipping from fifth place in the previous 12 months. Hong Kong is rated fourth in conditions of the best share of millionaire households, driving Switzerland, Qatar, and Singapore with eight.5 p.c of all households possessing at the very least a person million US pounds. Hong Kong is also rated second in the environment by the most billionaires per capita (a person per 132,075 persons), driving Monaco. In 2011, Hong Kong was rated second in the Ease of Performing Organization Index, driving Singapore.
Hong Kong is rated No. 1 in the environment in the Crony Capitalism Index by the Economist.
In 2014, Hong Kong was the eleventh most well known place for global vacationers between nations around the world and territories around the world, with a overall of 27.eight million readers contributing a overall of US$38,376 million in global tourism receipts. Hong Kong is also the most well known town for vacationers, practically two times of its nearest competitor Macau.
The territory’s population in mid-2015 is seven.thirty million, with an common once-a-year development level of .eight% above the previous 5 years. The present-day population of Hong Kong comprises ninety one% ethnic Chinese. A important component of Hong Kong’s Cantonese-speaking the greater part originated from the neighbouring Guangdong province, from where numerous fled during the Next Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese Civil War, and the communist rule in China.
Residents of the Mainland do not mechanically acquire the Suitable of Abode, and numerous could not enter the territory freely. Like other non-natives, they could use for the Suitable of Abode following 7 years of continuous residency. Some of the rights could also be obtained by marriage (e.g., the appropriate to operate), but these do not contain the appropriate to vote or stand for business. Nonetheless, the inflow of immigrants from mainland China, approximating 45,000 per 12 months, is a substantial contributor to its population development – a day by day quota of a hundred and fifty Mainland Chinese with spouse and children ties in Hong Kong are granted a “a person way allow”. Lifestyle expectancy in Hong Kong is eighty one.2 years for males and 86.9 years for women as of 2014, building it the best life expectancy in the environment.
About ninety one% of the persons of Hong Kong are of Chinese descent, the the greater part of whom are Taishanese, Chiu Chow, other Cantonese persons, and Hakka. Hong Kong’s Han the greater part originate primarily from the Guangzhou and Taishan areas in Guangdong province. The remaining six.9% of the population is composed of non-ethnic Chinese. There is a South Asian population of Indians, Pakistanis and Nepalese some Vietnamese refugees have turn out to be long term inhabitants of Hong Kong. There are also Britons, Us residents, Canadians, Japanese, and Koreans working in the city’s professional and monetary sector. In 2011, 133,377 foreign domestic helpers from Indonesia and 132,935 from the Philippines had been working in Hong Kong.
Hong Kong’s de facto formal language is Cantonese, a variety of Chinese originating from Guangdong province to the north of Hong Kong. English is also an formal language, and according to a 1996 by-census is spoken by three.1 p.c of the population as an day to day language and by 34.9 p.c of the population as a second language. Signs exhibiting equally Chinese and English are popular through the territory. Since the 1997 Handover, an maximize in immigrants from communist China and bigger conversation with the mainland’s economy have introduced an expanding selection of Mandarin speakers to Hong Kong.
A the greater part of inhabitants of Hong Kong have no religious affiliation, professing a kind of agnosticism or atheism. In accordance to the US Division of Point out forty three p.c of the population procedures some kind of faith. Some figures place it bigger, according to a Gallup poll, 64% of Hong Kong inhabitants do not consider in any faith, and quite possibly eighty% of Hong Kong declare no faith. In Hong Kong educating evolution gained out in curriculum dispute about irrespective of whether to educate other explanations, and that creationism and smart design will kind no component of the senior secondary biology curriculum.
Hong Kong enjoys a significant degree of religious flexibility, assured by the Simple Law. Hong Kong’s major religions are Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism a neighborhood religious scholar in call with important denominations estimates there are roughly 1.5 million Buddhists and Taoists. A Christian local community of all around 833,000 sorts about 11.seven% of the overall population Protestants sorts a much larger selection than Roman Catholics at a level of four:three, despite the fact that smaller Christian communities exist, including the Latter-day Saints and Jehovah’s Witnesses. The Anglican and Roman Catholic churches each and every freely appoint their own bishops, not like in mainland China. There are also Sikh, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu and Bahá’í communities. The apply of Falun Gong is tolerated.
Statistically Hong Kong’s cash flow gap is the best in Asia Pacific. In accordance to a report by the United Nations Human Settlements Programme in 2008, Hong Kong’s Gini coefficient, at .fifty three, was the best in Asia and “reasonably significant by global benchmarks”. Nonetheless, the governing administration has stressed that cash flow disparity does not equate to worsening of the poverty situation, and that the Gini coefficient is not strictly equivalent among areas. The governing administration has named economic restructuring, changes in household sizes, and the maximize of significant-cash flow work opportunities as things that have skewed the Gini coefficient.
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